Rabindranath Thakur’s ” Vijaya”

Victoria Ocampo

Rabindranath Thakur dedicated his ” Purabi” to Vijaya which he called to Argentinean poet and columnist, Victoria Ocampo.

Rabindranath and Victoria Ocampo

In 1924, when Rabindranath Tagore fell ill en route to Peru, he was forced to disembark in Buenos Aires. This sudden break in the journey, opened a new vista for Tagore. He was to meet Victoria Ocampo with whom a new relation would open up soon. Victoria received Tagore and took him to her family estate at San Isidro in the suburbs of Buenos Aires. The poet spent the next two months recuperating in a garden villa overlooking the River Plate in San Isidro. Ocampo, then 34, was enamoured after reading Andre Gide’s French translation of Tagore’s Gitanjali. For her, Tagore was an idol. She looked after him with the diligence of a devoted admirer. It was during this time that the two authors, it is said, developed a very emotional but platonic relationship and started corresponding and exchanging gifts after they met.

Victoria Ocampo

It was a subtle affair, a platonic love, born on the banks of the river Plata.They spent together two unforgettable months in 1924 at the villa Miralrio of Victoria with a view of the river,in San Isidro on the outskirts of Buenos Aires. The river Plata was flowing quietly overhearing their light conversation and heavy breathing. The famous Tipa tree in the garden of the house was bending and crouching …listening to the silence of the couple who used to sit under its shade.He called his muse Bijaya ( victoria ).

One third of his Purabi poems are said to be inspired by this Argentine angel.

Here is a poem

” Exotic blossom, I whispered again in your ear

What is your language dear

you smiled and shook your head

and the leaves murmurred instead ”

Tagore in Argentina with Victoria Ocampo

He thought, “he had received ‘a woman’s love’, the kind of love he had been hoping for a long time to ‘deserve’ the love that alleviates a man’s inner loneliness and is like a’ supply of water’ in his journey across a desert.” This was reflected in his poem Shesh Basanth (the last spring) which he wrote on November 21 during his stay as the guest of Ocampo.

While walking on my solitary way

I met you at the dusk of nightfall

I was about to ask you take my hand

When I gazed at your face and was afraid.

For I saw there the glow of the fire that lay asleep

In the deep of your heart’s dark silence

The poet and the Vijaya

Ocampo appeared to be distinctly different from them because of her depth of thought, deep spiritual inclination and high level of intellectual capability that enabled her to understand Tagore much more closely than the other females Tagore had been in contact with. The feminine charms and affections of other females around him had certainly helped Tagore considerably to overcome loneliness and inspired him to go ahead with relentless creative activities, but none could give him the level of intellectual and spiritual satisfaction like Victoria Ocampo. The memory of her company at San Isidro, and continuous correspondence with her, went on inspiring Tagore to new levels of creative activities. Her memory was subtly reflected in many of Tagore’s poems written after his Argentine venture. In three poems (Atithi, Ashanka and Shesh Basanta), written later on, Tagore addressed Ocampo although her name was not explicitly mentioned.

Women Writing & Indian Diversity

Malati Das


We can divide Indian literature into three specific era namely Old Literature,Medieval Literature and Modern Literature. Since the time of ancient India art and literature of this soil is highly unique and rich .


The sages of ancient India composed various kind of books which are of eminence knowledge like Vedas, Upanishads, Purana ,The Arthasashtra of Kautillya , Yoga Sashtra of Patanjali , The Baimanik sashtra of Vishamitra etc. Mathematician Aryabhatya , Physician Charak and Monu wrote their research papers in Sanskrit which are highly regarded till now .


Even women like Maitreyi, Khana , Lopamudra were the great wise and eminent writers in ancient India. We can be proud for these ancient distinguished poets and poetess. Still they inspire us . They wrote beautiful lyrics which teach us how to live a divine life without any tension of worldly hectic activities. These lyrics of ancient sages are universal . Srimatvagbata Gita ,Ramayana and Mahabharata all these are great treasure of Indian literature . These inspire us to create our modern literature and guide us to lead a happy life.

Mahadevi Varma


Medieval India couldn’t produce a lot like the erstwhile because of political disturbances. India was invaded by the foreigners like Turkish, Muggs, Mughals . The disturbed India couldn’t produce great authors though the writer like Jaydev ,Vidyapati ,Chandidas ,Bharatchandra were the genius in literature. We can pick the name of great Kalidas ,Vas , Bhabobhuti . They are eminent writers of this era.


Vaishnava Padabali is undoubtedly the best as an literature as well as divine songs. Modern poet Rabindranath Tagore was inspired with the lyrics of Vidyapati and composed his lyrical book’Vanusingher Padavali ‘.


Inspite of these compositions , we don’t feel any attraction in it due its non -modern themes . Indian modern literature is not only supurb in quality ,it’s unique, commendable and rich in various subjects. And it has been possible for new education systems, social reformation and other spiritual movement.


The Renaissance in Bengal changed the thought and life of Indian. Raja Ram Mohan Roy,Vidyasagar , Dwaraknath Tagore ,Sree Ramkrishna , Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was born in nineteenth century and they did a lot for the country . Modern literature is the result of Renaissance. We came contact with English literature and culture as they ruled our country for a longtime. Some Indian lover Englishmen helped to spread education along with Vidyasagar . Since that times Indian women came out from the captivation and started their journey to explore themselves .


In this modern era our literature was enriched with the splendid writings of male writers Bankim, Madhusudan Dutt ,Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Saratchandra and other male writers . but women writings are very few in nineteenth century, but started gradually.


India is a vast land with vast population and their language and culture are different. Even their lifestyles are different. They live in various demographic area which is different from one another. Some live in plains ,some in Hilly area ,some live in desert and others on bank of rivers or adjacent to seashore. So they have to face different kind of natural atmospheric influences . Some places are very worm ,some are very cool.


People of India used to struggle according to their environment and atmosphere. The hill’s folks are very industrious than wormy plains . Besides, India is a land of multi linguistic peoples. Some people speak in Indo- Arian languages, some Dravidian and others in Votchina or Votbarmio languages. So Indian literature is a store house of great treasure of multi linguistic literatures .

Indian Women Writing :

Indian Women Writing


Indian soil produced so many great writers like Valmiki ,Kalidas ,Rabindranath and so on.Rabindranath is the latest . We can compare him with Shakespeare, Keats or Wordsworth. I think he is more genius than any world class writers.Togore produced a lot in every branch of literature.


But comparatively We can not refer any women writer like Rabindranath in India. Though Indian writings of women are highly enriched like male writers. Actually modern India has produced number of eminent writers like Ashapurna Devi,Mahasweta Devi,Kamala Das ,Mahadevi Verma ,Krishna Seboti ,Ismat Chugtai etc. I like to discuss the literary works of women of different parts of Indian provinces in order to get the different socioeconomic problems which they had to face in day to day life struggle.


India is vast country and its culture, lifestyle ,food habit, language are various. The problems of Kashmir’s women and Northeast are different. Yes , both the provinces are disturbed due to terrorist activities and it has been going on since independence of India and Pakistan. Kashmir is now a province of India.


But some months ago it was not . The local people of Nagaland ,Mizoram don’t think that they are Indian. Besides other than Hindi ,Bengali ,Gujarati, Punjabi, Marathi ,Oriya etc others languages are from Dravidian and Votchiniya ,even the language of Manipur ,Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh are local tribals languages. In Kashmir, some writers followed Urdu and English other than Kashmiri language. So it’s a mammoth tasks to depict all the works of Indian Women Writings.


I would try to discuss about selected women writers of all provinces of Indian States who has written in prominent languages like Hindi ,Bengali, Punjabi, Malayalam, Tamil,Telugu, Kannada etc. Before that we are to discuss about the position of women in Indian society from Vedic period to modern times.


A.S.Altekar wrote in his book’The Position Of Women in Hindu Civilization’: The advancement and amelioration of a country depends on the betterment of its women’s dignity and the position which she belongs. Indian society is totally different from Western country’s societies. Our society is to some extent conservative. Though at present women are getting freedom than before as the education spreads in all section of the society.


We came to know from our ancient scriptures that women’s position in vedic period was in high esteem and they’d proper education. Women like Moitryee , Khana had the profound knowledge in scriptures, economics and sociology etc.They were being regarded in the vedic society.It was continued up to the first half of Buddhist era.Gradually subsides it this era.


Women position extremely diminished when Muslims ruled our country. In this period women had to confine into the four walls . They were captivated in purdah and not given education. But it has changed during colonial periods.Vidyasagar and Drinkwater at the first time organized a girls school in north Calcutta.